By Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)
A huge variety of entire guides has been dedicated to the Antarctic, to its plant and animal existence. it truly is hence fairly effortless to familiarize oneself with the present kingdom of Antarctic learn. not anything related is accessible for the Arctic. The heterogeneity and richness of the northern polar areas appear to have discouraged any try out at a synthethic method. This booklet has developed from an try and summarize the result of 15 years of ecological and physiological examine paintings within the Arctic - totally on Spitsbergen. the need of evaluating our effects and the ecological stipulations of Spitsbergen with different arctic areas grew right into a full-sized publication on arctic animal ecology. it isn't intended as an exhaustive survey ofthe proper literature. as an alternative i've got attempted to teach how heavily a number of the fields of study are interwoven, what percentage questions could be solved if purely realize is taken of fellow scientists and their effects, and what kind of arctic animals have in universal. This publication do not need been attainable with no the helpfulness of many colleagues. specifically I should still wish to point out Professor Ronning and Professor Solem of Trondheim college (Norway), Professor Arnthor Gardasson of Reykjavik collage (Iceland), Dr. NettIeship, Dr. Oliver and Dr. Ryder of Canada and Professor West of Fairbanks collage (Alaska, USA).
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S. 1: ..... , 1. , ,, POLAR BEAR '" z / i . : _ --= ! ' _ - . : _ - _ I:' _. 9 _ , _ •. 2.. 44. Insulation in relation to winter fur thickness in a series of arctic mammals. The insulation in tropical mammals is indicated by the shaded area. In the aquatic mammals (seal, beaver, polar bear) the measurements in 0 DC air are connected by vertical broken lines with the same measurements taken in ice water. The two upper points of the lemmings are from Dicrostonyx, the others from lemmus. , 1950) Temperature Conditions in the Arctic 51 Fig.
5 \ \ \ \ \ \ . ,...... 2 ... 2 4 2 4 2 4 '. min Fig. 36. Representative examples of temperatures recorded inside (0 ) and outside (e) heliotropic flowers (Cerastium, control) at L. Hazan, 1963. (Hocking, 1968) breeding of birds, where a poikilothermic object has to be kept warm at a constant temperature over a long period of time by a warm-blooded one. A heavy burden rests on the warm-blooded partner in this process, and the lower the surrounding temperature the heavier it becomes. That certain adaptive strategies have been adopted can be safely assumed.
73 ·C ~ ? ,.. • Freezing point of blood intracellular ice formation and therefore freezing of the body fluids has to be prevented at all costs. This is achieved by the addition to the body fluids of antifreeze agents which can act in one of two ways. One possibility is that both freezing point and melting point are depressed, a mechanism usually only effective at relatively mild temperatures (Fig. 48). It requires the solution of a large number of small particles in the body fluids, thus raising the osmotic pressure and considerably changing the internal milieu of the organism.
Arctic Animal Ecology by Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)