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F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)'s Animal Ecology To-Day PDF

By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

ISBN-10: 940175845X

ISBN-13: 9789401758451

ISBN-10: 9401763100

ISBN-13: 9789401763103

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The great majority of the first generation, which matured in April, estivates. Oviposition and activity is resumed in the autumn (late September), and the beetles die soon afterwards. The second generation develops from their eggs in October. Some of these adults oviposit, forming a IA generation. A small proportion only of the eggs of this IA generation develops successfully into beetles which lay very few eggs during the winter. These eggs do not develop. The few survivors participate in the formation of the normal first generation.

30 In comparing now the theoretically possible types of life-curves of PEARL 6 , we realize that all these types are only realizations of ecological life-tables, which have no connexion with inborn physiological life-curves. The real type of inborn physiological longevity is represented by the starving Drosophila flies in Fig. 2, in which the previous development stages are added as a line running closely parallel to the 100% living line until the adult stage is reached. All these possible types of PEARL are realized in ecological life-tables, types 4 and 3 being the most common, type 1 being a rather unusual exception induced by catastrophic changes in the environment.

In a sequence of generations: Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 No. 1 the transition from the first to the second generation brings about the decisive increase. The absolute population abundance veils this fact very often. Anyhow, only the weather at the decisive periods of increase and not at the population peak should be regarded as optimal. Where only one to two annual generations occur, observations should be made for a series of years. But instead of the epidemiological approach we may choose also a zoogeographical analysis.

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Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

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