By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major growth has happened over the past few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Extra resources for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)
Surface coverage with H and CI and vacant site fraction during growth l'ronl dichlorosilane. Calculations were lbr a total pressure o 1 2 Tow with 50 sccm SiH~C! e and 6 sire H e. (From M. Hierlemann, A. Kersch, C. Wemer, and H. I. Eh,~'tro~'hem. So~'. ) By removing chlorine from the surface this opens up new active sites for adsorption. Even so, vacant sites are created more slowly than with hydride sources; thus lower growth rates arc always observed for dichlorosilanc than for silanc under similar conditions (147).
Activation energies even lower than those for pure germanium surfaces have been extracted from the data (111). It is clear that germanium considerably enhances the desorption rate of hydrogen; this had been apparent from early CVD studies (112). A widely used empirical expression for the hydrogen desorption rate has been proposed by Garone et al. s -E(Ge-H)/RT -+- (1 -x)e-E(Si-H)/RT]. (13) As noted earlier, adsorption of molecular hydrogen is weak and is difficult to study using ordinary surface science chambers.
92) added a load lock and used gas flow switching rather than temperature ramps to control the growth; this technique was dubbed rapid thermal CVD or RTCVD. Similar systems have been reported by other groups ( 9 3 - 9 5 ) . Dutartre et al. (96) have used a JIPELEC FUV4 rector to also operate in this regime. A schematic diagram of the JIPELEC system is shown in Fig. 13. Growth of Ge Si~_~ at atmospheric pressure (APCVD) was first reported by Agnello et al. (97). This group initially used a purpose-built reactor and later the ASM Epsilon One reactor (Fig.
Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films) by Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen